�x�Yt}��O�ߗMr��T�L1��V�vP�h���E5���+!x� 9(��?%d߄%ǡ�D�h~I^�$�1(o*/P �,.Ƥ~�|�zY2��EAj7"W5�hV��Ρ�+�!�Q���Z�-6) Conclusions: This study found that a wide range of surgical procedures were effective in treating most patients with distal humerus intercondylar fractures, and that the approach of olecranon osteotomy may be more effective than that of triceps-sparing in restoring joint function. 0000079043 00000 n This method can be effectively employed in modeling pipelines or in automatic segmentation of medical images. �|0f�r�S��p��.�Z+Sm��x-v�|�4!B�(T��������a����:� �Bq���a� Teres minor %PDF-1.5 %���� 0000020389 00000 n The scapula provides attachment to several groups of muscles. 0000004459 00000 n SanchezER,HowlandN,KaltwasserK,MoliverCL.Anatomyofthesternaloriginofthepectoralismajor: implicationsforsubpectoralaugmentation.AesthetSurgJ.2014Nov;34(8):117984.[PubMed:25121786], CurtisAS,BurbankKM,TierneyJJ,SchellerAD,CurranAR.Theinsertionalfootprintoftherotatorcuff:an, attachmentregionpredictionusingstatisticalshapemodels:Avaliditystudy.ConfProcIEEEEngMedBiol, Soc.2017Jul;2017:16401643.[PubMed:29060198], OrthopSurgTraumatol.2017Apr;27(3):359366.[PubMed:28204962], [PMCfreearticle:PMC5382588][PubMed:28185265], NYUHospJtDis.2010;68(2):10311.[PubMed:20632985]. ... bone at the bottom on humerus by elbow. The shoulder girdle movements alter the orientation of the glenoid cavity of the scapula and, thus, modify the position of the limb. Can you identify the Anatomy of the Humerus? shouldersyndromecanoccurviainfiltrationbrisementundergeneralanesthesia. Movements of the, The rotator cuff is a group of muscles in the shoulder that allow a wide range of movement while maintaining the stability of the glenohumeral joint. plexusandtraveldownalongthebrachium,however,donotsupplyinnervationtothisregion. The pooled analysis indicated that patients treated using olecranon osteotomy had better functional outcome than patients treated with triceps-sparing(pooled OR= 2.38, 95%CI: 1.25 to 4.55, P = 0.009). 1992).. Humerus. 0000052775 00000 n The scapula forms the posterior of the shoulder girdle. [14], Theprimarybloodsupplyoftheproximalhumeruscomesfromanastomosesbetweentheanteriorandposterior, circumflexhumeralarteries. 0000037872 00000 n The role of these two bones is to provide stability and support to the rest of the body, and through articulations with the femur and foot/ankle and the muscles attached to these bones, provide mobility and the ability to ambulate in an upright position. 0000118697 00000 n [36]Shoulderarthroplastycanalsobeindicatedfor, shoulderosteoarthritis,inflammatoryarthritis. [1]Justinferiortotheheadofthehumerusistheanatomicalneckofthehumerus,which, dividestheheadofthehumerusfromthegreaterandlessertubercles.Theanatomicalneckofthehumerusisthe, residualepiphysealplate.Anintertuberculargrooveislocatedproximally,whichdemarcatesthetwotubercles, vertically.Followingthetuberclesisthesur, Continuingdistallyisthecylindricalshapedshaftofthehumerus,whichcontainsadeltoidtubercleonitslateral, aspectandaradialgrooveonitsposterioraspect(alsoreferredtoasthespiralgroove). proximallywiththeglenoidviatheglenohumeral(GH)joint,anddistallywiththeradiusandulnaattheelbowjoint. [1, Astimeprogresses,acentralareaofdeadchondrocytesdevelops,withlittlepiecesofcalcifiedcartilageleftbehind,a, shellofbonearoundthecenter,andavascularsupplygoingaroundtheinterior, interiormesenchymalcellsthatdifferentiateintomoreosteoblastsandmonocytesthatformosteoclasts.Inthecenter, oftheinitialcartilagetemplate,boneisresorbedontheinsideanddepositedontheoutside,creatingthegrowthin, widthofahollowentity(formingamarrow).Simultaneously,theproximalanddistalendsofthecartilagetemplate, havechondrocytesthatcontinuetoproliferateassecondaryossificationcenters.Thisactivityallowscartilagegrowth, attheendofthebones,providingverticallyexpansivecapabilities.Ultimately,theareaswherebonemeetscartilage, formstheepiphysealplate(alinearzoneofcartilage),wherebonereplacescartilagecontinuouslyuntilbonegrowth, completelyfusesandstopsaroundpuberty.Inthehumerusspecifically, ofthehumerus,humeralshaft,greaterandlessertubercles,medialandlateralepicondyles,trochleaandolecranon., Theossificationoftheshaftoccursateightweeksgestation,withthehumeralheadossificationoccurringat, birth/afterbirth.Thegreatertuberclesossificationtakesplaceduringthefirstyearoflifeandthelessertubercle, ossificationwithinthefirstsixyearsoflife. It is a sturdy, flat, triangular bone. The present findings corresponded well with the descriptions in the anatomy textbooks published in English-speaking countries. Proximal humerus fractures (PHF) account for 5-6% of all adult fractures[1]. H�\��j�0��z�96��]J�'�P��H��P�Fv~�j����ps��Ί(���~Z��oF��z�f�+�"�!���iv<=���9���Wx�*� �m�G;CE[��_�!Xö���n^�>���s���=��F�k�E�U@~��h�? --patellofemoral compartment [30], Posteriorcompartmentmuscles:Thetricepsbrachiimusclecontains3heads,withthemedialheadoriginatingonthe. lesser tubercle. 1. Two shoulders underwent revision surgery at an average of five months after index arthroplasty. Humerus Bone and attachments 1. [20]Itinnervatestheposteriormusclesof, thearm,forearmandoverlyingskin.Theradialnerveisalsoresponsibleforinnervationofthelateralandmedial, epicondyleofthehumerus.[21]Oneshouldnotethatthemediannerveandulnarnervelikewisecomeoffthebrachial. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint. 0000094626 00000 n Stabilization in the shoulder is provided collectively by the non-contractile tissue of the glenohumeral joint (static stabilizers) such as the capsule, the labrum, the negative intraarticular pressure and the glenohumeral ligaments; and the contractile tissues (dynamic stabilizers) such as the rotator cuff and the long head of the biceps brachii. [3]Ontheanteriorlateralsurfaceofthecondyleisthelateralcapitulumwhicharticulates, withtheheadoftheradiusbone,andontheanteriormedialsurfaceofthecondyleisthetrochleawhicharticulatesthe, trochlearnotchoftheulnabone.Thecoronoidfossaislocatedsuperiortothetrochleaandaccommodatesthe, coronoidprocessoftheulnaandsuperiortothecapitulumontheanteriorsurfaceofthecondyle,istheradialfossa, whichreceiveswiththeheadoftheradius,bothuponflexionoftheelbowjoint.Ontheposteriorsurfaceofthe. 0000002798 00000 n The diagnosis of elbow instability can made using specific examination maneuvers and testing to diagnose the clinical pattern. [15]Thesearebranchesofthedistalthirdoftheaxillaryartery.Recentstudiessuggest, theposteriorhumeralcircumflexarterytobetheprimarysourceofbloodsupplytothehumeralhead. 0000043763 00000 n The humerus articulates with the scapula proximally at the glenohumeral joint so it participates in the movements of the shoulder. Brachioradialis,TrochleaCapitulum,LateralEpicondyle,RadialFossa,CoronoidFossa,MedialEpicondyle, Extensor,Carpiradialislongus,.ContributedbyGray'sAnatomyPlates. Results: The methods used to evaluate elbow function were diverse across the studies and included non-surgical, fixation, and plating approaches. 29. 0000042737 00000 n The challenge in this disease lies in both: how to diagnose and how to treat. 0000005358 00000 n Smooth wires, percutaneous threaded wires, cannulated screws, and retrograde elastic stable intramedullary nailing are acceptable options for fixation. Humerus, long bone of the upper limb or forelimb of land vertebrates that forms the shoulder joint above, where it articulates with a lateral depression of the shoulder blade (glenoid cavity of scapula ), and the elbow joint below, where it articulates with projections of the ulna and the radius. It is located between the elbow joint and the shoulder. The intrinsic muscles of the scapula include the rotator cuff muscles, teres major, subscapularis, teres minor, and infraspinatus. 0000039649 00000 n andsocketjoint. Teres major muscle (TM) and latissiumus dorsi muscle (LD) are frequently used in muscle transfers around the shoulder girdle. Asoneofthemanylongboneswithintheappendicularskeleton,thehumerusdevelopsviaendochondralossification. ^Jg��Pq���{� 4MMKLZ�2K-n ߎ9�F0�c�;��Q'x&1m~��w��r�@��A�G�jtҖ������{Ȍ_��� ���� w����A��P���-u������1�/��?��� bones include the humerus, radius, femur, tibia, metacarpals, and metatarsals. The greater tubercle is situated sideways and consists of both anterior and posterior face. 0000056361 00000 n Between January 2000 and December 2011, ten shoulders with Charcot arthropathy were treated with shoulder arthroplasty at our Institution (six hemiarthroplasty, one total shoulder arthroplasty, three reverse shoulder arthroplasty). Nutrient foramen is an opening in the shaft of humerus. Collectively, these findings indicate and strengthen evidence towards the notion that the RC muscles/tendons and the internal capsule are one complete and inseparable unit/complex. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. In a study of 4536 consecutive fractures in adults seen in the Massachusetts General Hospital emergency department, only 0.31% were supracondylar (bicolumn) fractures of the distal humerus. Distal humerus fractures in adults are relatively uncommon injuries, representing only about 3% of all fractures in adults. 0000040709 00000 n 0000041692 00000 n In typical cases, one prominent nutrient foramen was situated on the anteromedial surface of the humeral shaft, and the nutrient canal distally penetrated the cortical bone layer. [22]Thepectoralismajormuscleoriginatesattheclavicle,manubrium,sternumbodyandtrueribsand, insertsintotheintertubercularsulcusofthehumerus.Itallowsadduction,flexion,extensionandmedialrotationof, thehumerus. The fact that the RC unit is more complex in its structure and attachment places importance on the biomechanical stresses encountered after repair. Patella, or knee-cap. Besides its attachment to the infraglenoid tubercle, some fibres took origin from the posteroinferior aspect of the glenohumeral joint capsule, as well as a fibrous slip from the upper aspect of the lateral (axillary) border of the scapula in all specimens. This article reviews the elbow's unique anatomy and biomechanical characteristics and these are applied when reviewing the maneuvers and testing used to diagnose elbow instability. 0:25 [READ] Mobi Skeleton Atlas: The complete Skeletal Anatomy: Skeletal System images with Bone. --posterior compartment, superficial Tibia and Fibula Bones Quiz – Anterior Markings. Anatomynote.com found Humerus Bone Anatomy from plenty of anatomical pictures on the internet.We think this is the most useful anatomy … Gorham's disease is progressive in most patients; yet it can be self-limiting in a few reported cases. h�b```e`�(e`g`T�bd@ A�;Ǽ o��ҍ�``����-�� &�&����EjF����W�''/�Hظ�S/誶���}�WN�I�cS�� Metacarpal bones. Our novel approach combined surgical intervention, medication and radiotherapy as a treatment of Graham-Stout disease in the humerus, and showed no progression of the disease our case. An intertubercular groove is located proximally, which demarcates the two tubercles vertically. The brachial artery courses along the ventral surface of the arm and gives rise to multiple smaller branching arteries before reaching the cubital fossa. 0000085781 00000 n {�3�>��۶��a\�*�#��}�4廳wg��|�Y9Z�3w�� aj9�N��i���X�S@�zM�X�@P����Ȗ=V�5��T��V ـ����c�L- R�BΝ�嵁���ʐ�5��B�7�k�T��һֿ5�����T�=E?p��i���0�mQ�o�,$iGB�dC9UÆ�UQm%\k�r� 0000039103 00000 n Methods The exact pathology of this disease showed no evidence of malignant, neuropathic, or infectious components involved in the causation of this disorder except for the culprit of lympho-vascular malformations in the bone. Playing next. A helpful mnemonic to remember these muscles is "SITS." Ribs. Further validations are warranted on all the muscles of the shoulder complex. Ulna. 0000044891 00000 n A proximal humerus fracture typically occurs when an elderly woman falls directly onto her shoulder or on her outstretched arm. Right Humerus - Arm Bone - Buy Royalty Free 3D model by Anatomy by Doctor Jana [2489163] - Sketchfab Store. It articulates proximally with the glenoid via the glenohumeral (GH) joint, and distally with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint. 0000042399 00000 n 0000078193 00000 n The dimension of the attachment of the TM was larger than that of the LD. It may be divided into thirds along its length The Humerus 6. Revise with anatomy quizzes created by experts. The Bones PDF Author: Jim Swan Subject: This accessory nutrient foramen received an accessory humeral nutrient artery that originated from the radial collateral artery. 0000072207 00000 n H�\�K�� ���+j/���zo%��$�� ��$�`\9$ȿ�wX�h�B�\�^$O}>���ӯ_������ç�>����x�t����|VK^���LO��?����o��O�g��2��2�w�}'K�����C���ە��T�_s��O�>|:N�~�e��oM��l�ʣ��,��tL����2�Zsb�x�™?������������9���>q]f��R��:��y57��ܹL)�"ѵ�Fv�R��qg��_�KW��JOm\�'�|5~�Z��/���w�7�1���o�˪��Ӹ?��k--�3܎�>ył��b�����$e5�k ��nGiWi�a]D�p�Z��3 �X���7���:eb�&5y�_�� �����: 0000004984 00000 n 0000040623 00000 n Patients diagnosed with Gorham's disease in the bone may initially present with insidious onset of dull aching pain, progressive weakness, or pathologic fractures as the initial presentation. choices. [49], Etiologyofthediseaseisunknownhoweverlymphovascularmalformationintheboneisseen.Commonsymptoms, includeachingpain,progressiveweakness,andsubsequentfractures.Treatmentischallengingandinvolvesa, combinationofsurgicalintervention,medication,andradiotherapy, Charcotarthropathyisararedisordercharacterizedbydebilitatingjointdestruction.Thediseasecanleadtoboneand, softtissuelossaroundthehumerusandcanaltermuscularcontrol.Treatmentinvolvesshoulderarthroplasty, OsteochondrosisofthehumerusisassociatedwithPanner’sdiseaseandOsteochondritisdissecans.Thetwodiseases, ages7and10,youngerthantheonsetofOsteochondritisdissecans.Panner’sistypicallynottreatedwithoperative, associatedbrachialarteryinjury.Injury, SamartS,ApivatgaroonA,LakchayapakornK,ChemchujitB.Thecorrelationbetweenacromionaxillarynerve, distanceandupperarmlength;acadavericstudy.JMedAssocThai.2014Aug;97Suppl8:S2733.[PubMed, designphilosophyonmusclemomentarms.J.Orthop.Res.2015Apr;33(4):60513.[PubMed:25640775], PrescherA.Anatomicalbasics,variations,anddegenerativechangesoftheshoulderjointandshouldergirdle.Eur, JRadiol.2000Aug;35(2):88102.[PubMed:10963915], WilkKE,ArrigoCA,AndrewsJR.Currentconcepts:thestabilizingstructuresoftheglenohumeraljoint.JOrthop, SportsPhysTher.1997Jun;25(6):36479.[PubMed:9168344], KanatliU,BölükbaşiS,EkinA,OzkanM,SimşekA.[Anatomy,biomechanics,andpathophysiologyof, instabilityoftheglenohumeraljoint].ActaOrthopTraumatolT, KarbachLE,ElfarJ.ElbowInstability:Anatomy,Biomechanics,DiagnosticManeuvers,andT, Am.2017Feb;42(2):118126.[PMCfreearticle:PMC5821063][PubMed:28160902], MartinS,SanchezE.Anatomyandbiomechanicsoftheelbowjoint.SeminMusculoskeletRadiol.2013, ParaskevasG,PapadopoulosA,PapaziogasB,SpanidouS,ArgiriadouH,GigisJ.Studyofthecarryingangleof. Other bone and tendon injuries in the shoulder region as well as dislocation of the shoulder should be considered on differential diagnosis. In addition to providing greater understanding of the basic anatomy of the RC unit, these findings also provide clarity for surgeons with the goal of improving and enhancing surgical methods for better post-operative patient outcome. 0000034867 00000 n Gorham-Stout disease or the so-called vanishing bone syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by intra-osseous proliferation of vascular channels resulting in destruction and resorption of the osseous matrix. 0000045342 00000 n However,functionalimpairmentisnotcommonlyseen.Surgicalinterventioninvolvesavalgusosteotomyofthe, Disappearingbonediseaseisararemusculoskeletalconditionmarkedbyboneresorption,lackofboneformationand, lackofvascularproliferation.Thisdisorderhasseverequalityoflifeimplications. More information... People also love these ideas Pinterest… Extensive remodeling of the proximal humerus and the wide arc of motion of the glenohumeral joint accommodate a large degree of fracture displacement and angulation. 0000056772 00000 n Keywords: Humerus bone; Morphometry; Nutrient foramen; Nepalese subjects Introduction The humerus is the bone of the arm, and is the strongest and longest bones of the upper extremity. The primary outcome was the incidence of functional grading of excellent/good. humeral head and a small glenoid cavity. In general, most procedures were associated with >70% of patients having excellent/good joint function following surgery. This results from old-fashioned knowledge of the anatomy of the RC complex and its functional aspects. 28 upper extremities of 14 human cadavers (6 female, 8 male) were investigated during the students’ dissection course in the winter term 2012. The attachment footprints were photographed and the images were processed with ImageJ Version 1.46r. The mechanism of bone resorption is yet to be clarified. Result: The origin of the long head of triceps was observed to have an extended attachment of variable length. View 2.01 Anatomy.pdf from A&P 101 at Boone High School. The three heads fuse together superior to the elbow joint and give rise to broad ligament inserting into the top of olecranon process of the ulna. A human humerus (humerus) from the North Sea. In this anatomy and physiology lesson, I’m going to cover the only bone that makes up the anatomical arm, called the humerus, which is part of the appendicular skeleton. IntroductionCharcot arthropathy is a rare cause of debilitating joint destruction. The humerus is the largest bone of the upper extremity and defines the human brachium (arm). distinctions:scapulohumeralmuscles,anteriorcompartmentmuscles,posteriorcompartmentmuscles. 0000041200 00000 n [18], https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534821/?report=printable 3/9, Theaxillarynerve,formedfromtheposteriorcordofthebrachialplexus,wrapsaroundthesurgicalneckofthe, humerus,andprovidesinnervationtothedeltoidandrotatorcuffmuscles,specificallytheteresminor, oftheanteriorportionofthebrachiumissuppliedbythemusculocutaneousnerve,whichformsasadivisionofthe, lateralcordofthebrachialplexus.Thisnervepiercesthroughthecoracobrachialismuscleandtravelsbetweenthe. TakishaIsenhour. The most common surgical technique used was olecranon osteotomy(n = 7)and triceps-sparing(n = 5). The medial head is the deepest and takes origin from the lower half of the posterior aspect of the humerus; the lateral head lies laterally and arises from the upper 1/3rd of the posterior surface of the humerus and the superior lip of the spiral, The scapula or shoulder blade is the bone that connects the clavicle to the humerus. 0000091420 00000 n Copyright © 2018, StatPearls Publishing LLC. nutrientartery:Applicationtofractureandsurgeryofthehumerus.ClinAnat.2017Oct;30(7):978987. The deforming forces applied to each segment are … 0000046501 00000 n 0000052162 00000 n Each animal has a similar set of bones. Located along the posterolateral shoulder, the QS serves as a passageway for the axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery (PHCA). greater tubercle. The distal humerus is broad and flattened and presents numerous processes and depressions. All studies had to have evaluated the treatment of patients with intercondylar fractures of the distal humerus. Skull Sutures Quiz . Lesionscanincreasetheriskoffracturewithinthehumerus. 0000094696 00000 n BrownSA,DoolittleDA,BohanonCJ,JayarajA,NaiduSG,HuettlEA,RenfreeKJ,OderichGS,BjarnasonH, newclassificationsystemandcaseseries.MayoClin.Proc.2015Mar;90(3):38294.[PubMed:25649966], PatelS,ColacoHB,ElveyME,LeeMH.Posttraumaticosteonecrosisoftheproximalhumerus.Injury.2015, KingEC,IhnowSB.WhichProximalHumerusFracturesShouldBePinned?TreatmentinSkeletallyImmature, Patients.JPediatrOrthop.2016Jun;36Suppl1:S448.[PubMed:27100038]. The meta-analysis included four studies with 276 patients, and compared olecranon osteotomy with triceps-sparing. 2. Thehumeralheadarticulateswiththeglenoidfossaofthescapulaandformstheglenohumeraljoint,asynovialball. 0000061712 00000 n 0000084260 00000 n ... Anatomy of long bones. 0000075335 00000 n The position of the limb, thus, depends both on the position of the girdle in relation to the trunk and on the posture at the shoulder joint. .��% _.���G������\�� Through trauma and overuse, classic instability patterns arise by loss of these important stabilizers. It was 36.5 ± 8 mm long and 3.7 ± 1.2 mm wide. Shoulders were followed for a minimum of two years or until re-operation. These muscles attach the, This chapter discusses the anatomy and movement of the upper limb. The decision to treat a proximal humerus fracture in a skeletally immature patient operatively versus nonoperatively is dependent on the following 3 factors: displacement, bone age, and capacity to remodel. Thehumerusservesastheoriginandinsertionsiteofmanyupperlimbmusclesthatdivideintothefollowing. [6]ThecoracoacromialandacromioclavicularligamentsstabilizetheGHjoint;these, preventproximalmigrationofthehumerus. No statistical significant difference between left and right (p = 0.424) was noted, but a significant difference between males and females (p = 0.000) was. resection/reconstructionmaybeindicatedintheinstancewherethediseasepersists. Subject-specific musculoskeletal models can predict accurate joint and muscle biomechanics thereby helping clinicians and surgeons.